Architectural Botany
Architectural Botany

Eco-physiology Elements

Plant and Crop Models
Plant and Crop Models

Applied Mathematics
Applied Mathematics

GreenLab Overview
GreenLab Overview

GreenLab Courses
GreenLab Courses

The use of computational models in the frame of environmental topics is as its early stages. Mechanistic modelling of plant growth is thus a relatively recent research field.


Acquire the ground concepts in Plant growth and development at individual plant level, for studies related to agronomy and sustainable environment.

Mobilize those concepts and their related tools on applications at crops and stands levels.

    In more details, these pedagogic resources aims to:
    1. Initiate learners to botanical notions describing plant architecture.
    2. Show that the plant production is a complex dynamic interaction between a space conquer strategy and environmental resource availability, water in particular.
    3. Understand the crop modelling approaches principles and perceive the interest of those involving structural aspects.
    4. Understand and operate a specific mathematical Functional and Structural Plant Model, which shows the capability to be reversed, allowing thus production optimization towards defined targets.
    5. Master advanced analysis and simulation tools in order to characterize, and quantify the meaningful variables driving the biomass production dynamics at plant level in crops and stands (in specific environmental conditions).
    6. For teachers, those resources deliver contents to build various pedagogic paths, from a simple introduction to plant modelling principles up to the capability to mobilize advanced simulation and calibration tools to understand the plant growth and development dynamics.

    Two levels of resources are distinguished. Fundamentals (elementary notions in architectural Botany, physiological assumptions for production, mathematical notions for organ competition definition and calibration, overview of plant and crop models) define the first level. Second level introduces modelling approaches and functional structural models specificities before focusing on GreenLab model definition and applications.

    Theoretical approach, examples and interactive exercises define the frame of a unit. Those can be combined to build various pedagogic paths for graduate, master courses or doctoral options.
    The resource set includes study cases and exercises involving simulations and calibration tools with their respective measurement protocols and dataset.
    Resources language is English, under pdf and html format.
    Software tool are available on line, and operative with an easy to use installation, including technical tutorial, specific and unit contextual dataset and interfaces.


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    Cournède P.-H., Kang, M. Z., Mathieu, A., Barczi, J. F., Yan, H. P., Hu, B. G., and De Reffye, P. 2006. Structural factorization of plants to compute their functional and architectural growth. Simulation, 82(7), pp. 427-438 (access to paper and pdf)

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    Fourcaud T., Zhang X.-P., Stokes A., Lambers H., Korner C. 2008. Plant growth modelling and applications: the increasing importance of plant architecture in growth models. Annals of Botany, 101 (8), pp.1053-1063. (access to paper and pdf)

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    Monteith, J. L., Moss, C. J. 1977. Climate and the efficiency of crop production in Britain [and discussion]. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(980), pp. 277-294 (access to paper and pdf)

    Jones, C. A., Ritchie, J. T., Kiniry, J. R., Godwin, D. C., Otter, S. I. 1983. The CERES wheat and maize models. Minimum Data Sets for Agrotechnology Transfer, 95 p.

    Jones, C.A., and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize : a simulation model of maize growth and development. Edited by C.A. Jones and J.R. Kiniry. College Station : Texas A&M University Press, 1986. 194 p.

    Keating, B. A., Carberry, P. S., Hammer, G. L., Probert, M. E., Robertson, M. J., Holzworth, D., ... , Smith, C. J. 2003. An overview of APSIM, a model designed for farming systems simulation. European Journal of Agronomy, 18(3), pp. 267-288 (access to paper and pdf)

    Prusinkiewicz, P., Lindenmayer, A., Hanan, J. 1988. Development models of herbaceous plants for computer imagery purposes. In ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 141-150

    De Reffye P., P., Edelin, C., Françon, J., Jaeger, M., and Puech, C. 1988. Plant models faithful to botanical structure and development. In ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 151-158

    De Wit, C. D., Brouwer, R., Vries, F. D., Setlik, I. 1970. The simulation of photosynthetic systems. In Prediction and measurement of photosynthetic productivity. Proceedings of the IBP/PP Technical Meeting, Tfebon,[Czechoslovakia], 14-21 September, 1969. Wageningen, Netherlands, PUDO, pp. 47-70.