-> About this Resource
Scope *______
Map *____

-> Preliminary Courses
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Botany
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Axis Typology Patterns
Typology basis *___________
Pictograms *_________
Sexuality & development *___________________
Growth *______
Branching rhythms *______________
Branching delays *_____________
Branching positional *________________
Branching arrangement *__________________
Axis orientation *_____________
Architectural models *________________
-> Architectural Unit
About Arc. Models *______________
Models limitations *______________
Architectural Units *______________
Reiteration *_________
Sequence of development *___________________
Morphogenetic gradients *___________________
Physiological age *_____________
-> An Example
Wild Cherry (young) *_______________
Wild Cherry (adult) *______________
Wild Cherry (mature) *________________
Quiz *____
Case study Quiz *_____________
Supplementary resources *____________________

-> Eco-Physiology
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Growth Factors
Factors affecting Growth *___________________
Endogenous Processes *_________________
Environmental Factors *_________________
Thermal Time *___________
-> Light interaction
P.A.R. *_____
Light absorption *_____________
Photosynthesis *___________
Respiration *_________
Maintenance respiration *__________________
L.U.E. Model *__________
Density effect *___________
Density effect on crop *__________________
-> Biomass
Biomass Pool *__________
Biomass Partitioning *_______________
Crop models *__________
A Crop model example *__________________
Quiz *____
Supplementary resources *___________________

-> Applied Mathematics
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Probabilities
Section contents *____________
Discrete Random Variable *___________________
Expected value, Variance *___________________
Properties *________
-> Useful Laws
Bernoulli Trials *___________
Binomial Law *__________
Geometric Law *____________
Negative Binomial Law *_________________
-> Dynamic systems
Section contents *_____________
Useful functions *____________
Beta density *__________
Exercises *________
Negative Exponential *________________
Systems functions *______________
Discrete dynamic systems *___________________
Parameter Identification *__________________
Parameter estimation *________________
Supplementary Resources *____________________

-> GreenLab courses
GreenLab presentation *__________________
-> Overview
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
Growth and components *___________________
Plant architecture *_______________
Biomass production *________________
Modelling - FSPM *______________
GreenLab principles *________________
Applications *__________
Supplementary resources *_____________________
-> Principles
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
-> About modelling
Scientific disciplines *________________
Organs: tree components *___________________
Factors affecting growth *___________________
Model-simulation workflow *____________________
GreenLab inherits from *__________________
GreenLab positioning *_________________
The growth cycle *______________
Inside the growth cycle *___________________
Implementations *______________
Supplementary resources *____________________
-> Development
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
Modelling Scheme *______________
Tree traversal modes *________________
-> Stochastic modelling
Principles *_______
-> Development
Growth Rhythm *____________
Damped growth *____________
Viability *______
Rhythmic axis *___________
Branching *________
Stochastic automaton *_________________
-> Organogenesis equations
Principles *_______
Organ cohorts *___________
Organ numbering *_____________
Substructure factorization *____________________
Stochastic case *____________
-> Structure construction
Construction modes *_______________
Construction basis *______________
Axis of development *________________
Stochastic reconstruction *___________________
Implicit construction *________________
Explicit construction *________________
3D construction *____________
Supplementary resources *____________________
-> Production-Expansion
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
-> EcoPhysiology reminders
Relevant concepts *______________
Temperature *__________
Light interception *______________
Photosynthesis *___________
Biomass common pool *_________________
Density *______
-> Principals
Growth cycle *__________
Refining PbMs *___________
Organ cohorts *___________
GreenLab vs PbM & FSPM *___________________
-> GreenLab's equations
Summary *_______
Production equation *_______________
Plant demand *__________
Organ dimensions *______________
A dynamic system view *__________________
Equation terms *____________
Full Model *________
Model behaviour *______________
Supplementary resources *____________________
-> Applications
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
-> Measurements
Agronomic traits *_____________
Mesurable/hidden param. *___________________
Fitting procedure *______________
-> Fitting structure
Principles *_______
-> Development
Simple development *_______________
Damped growth *____________
Rhythmic growth *_____________
Rhythmic growth samples *___________________
Mortality *_______
Branching *________
-> Crown analysis
Analysis principles *______________
Equations *________
Example / Exercise *_______________
-> Case study
Plant Architecture *______________
Development simulation *__________________
Introducing Biomass *_______________
Biomass partitioning *_______________
Equilibrium state *_____________
Supplementary resources *____________________

-> Tools (software)
Presentation & Objectives *_____________________
Map *____
Fitting, Stats *___________
Simulation *_________
Online tools *__________

Preliminary Course

Botany. Architectural Analysis

Branching delays

The branching event occurrence date is important to consider in the establishment of the ramification structure.

Immediate and delayed branching
    Morphological traits help in understanding whether the branching process was immediate or delayed in time.

    Immediate branching
      In the case of immediate branching, called sylleptic, the new branched shoot shows a long first internode, i.e. a long hypopodium.
      The first leaves of the branched shoot also show a similar type and size then the next leaves, or the bearer leaves.
      Lastly, the diameter of the new shoot is often similar to the bared one.

      Immediate (or sylleptic) branches result from the development of a newly initiated lateral axis without the apical meristem of that axis having had an intervening rest period.

      Immediate Branching
      Immediate branching (Photos and drawing D. Barthélémy, CIRAD)
          Left: Persea americana, right: Acacia dealbata
          Both first leaves and internodes of the branched shoot are similar to the other ones, and the first internode is long (

    Delayed branching
      In the case of delayed branching, also called proleptic, the new branched shoot usually shows successive short internodes at its base.
      The first leaves of the branched shoot are also reduced when compared to the following leaves, or the bearer leaves.
      On the shorter internodes, spines or cataphylls may be found instead of reduced leaves.
      And the diameter of the new shoot is usually smaller compared to the bared one.

      Proleptic or delayed branches are the result of the discontinuous development of a new lateral axis, with its apical meristem having experienced an intervening period of rest.

      Delayed Branching
      Delayed branching (Photos and drawing D. Barthélémy, CIRAD)
          On the new shoot, the first internodes are short and bear reduced leaves
          Left: On the newly elongated shoot, the diameter is significantly reduced when compared to the bearer (Cyphomandra hartwegii)
          Right: Scars on this past branch shows a short hypopodium (Platanus sp)

    It may be difficult to define the branching occurrence mode on old past branches.
    The observer may come up against the disappearance of morphological marks due to organ pruning and secondary growth.
    In such cases, similar younger branching patterns should be considered; and if none are available, destructive wood transverse section analysis may help to retrieve information.


Botany. Botanical entity defined on a branch by the portion of stem below the first leaf on a shoot, between the shoot base and the first node.


Syllepsis - Immediate or Sylleptic branches
Botany. Syllepsis is the continuous development of a lateral from a terminal meristem, to establish a branch without an evident intervening period of rest of the lateral meristem. Immediate (or sylleptic) branches lack basal bud-scales and have an extended basal internode (hypopodium) generally below the first leaf or pair of leaves. See also Prollepsis


Prolepsis, Delayed or Proleptic branches
Botany. Prolepsis is the discontinuous development of a lateral meristem to establish a branch, with some intervening period of rest of the lateral meristem. Delayed (or proleptic) branches have one or more basal bud-scales (often arranged in pairs) and usually with a series of transitional forms (transitional in both size and shape) towards the adult leaf. See also Syllepsis


Botany. In plant morphology, a cataphyll (sometimes also called a cataphylla, or cataphyll leaf) is a leaf whose primary function is something other than photosynthesis. Cataphylls are at most trivially or transiently photosynthetic, and instead of photosynthesis the main functions of most types are storage, protection, or structural support.