-> About this Resource
Scope *______
Map *____

-> Preliminary Courses
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Botany
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Axis Typology Patterns
Typology basis *___________
Pictograms *_________
Sexuality & development *___________________
Growth *______
Branching rhythms *______________
Branching delays *_____________
Branching positional *________________
Branching arrangement *__________________
Axis orientation *_____________
Architectural models *________________
-> Architectural Unit
About Arc. Models *______________
Models limitations *______________
Architectural Units *______________
Reiteration *_________
Sequence of development *___________________
Morphogenetic gradients *___________________
Physiological age *_____________
-> An Example
Wild Cherry (young) *_______________
Wild Cherry (adult) *______________
Wild Cherry (mature) *________________
Quiz *____
Case study Quiz *_____________
Supplementary resources *____________________

-> Eco-Physiology
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Growth Factors
Factors affecting Growth *___________________
Endogenous Processes *_________________
Environmental Factors *_________________
Thermal Time *___________
-> Light interaction
P.A.R. *_____
Light absorption *_____________
Photosynthesis *___________
Respiration *_________
Maintenance respiration *__________________
L.U.E. Model *__________
Density effect *___________
Density effect on crop *__________________
-> Biomass
Biomass Pool *__________
Biomass Partitioning *_______________
Crop models *__________
A Crop model example *__________________
Quiz *____
Supplementary resources *___________________

-> Applied Mathematics
Contents & Objectives *__________________
Map *____
-> Probabilities
Section contents *____________
Discrete Random Variable *___________________
Expected value, Variance *___________________
Properties *________
-> Useful Laws
Bernoulli Trials *___________
Binomial Law *__________
Geometric Law *____________
Negative Binomial Law *_________________
-> Dynamic systems
Section contents *_____________
Useful functions *____________
Beta density *__________
Exercises *________
Negative Exponential *________________
Systems functions *______________
Discrete dynamic systems *___________________
Parameter Identification *__________________
Parameter estimation *________________
Supplementary Resources *____________________

-> GreenLab courses
GreenLab presentation *__________________
-> Overview
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
Growth and components *___________________
Plant architecture *_______________
Biomass production *________________
Modelling - FSPM *______________
GreenLab principles *________________
Applications *__________
Supplementary resources *_____________________
-> Principles
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
-> About modelling
Scientific disciplines *________________
Organs: tree components *___________________
Factors affecting growth *___________________
Model-simulation workflow *____________________
GreenLab inherits from *__________________
GreenLab positioning *_________________
The growth cycle *______________
Inside the growth cycle *___________________
Implementations *______________
Supplementary resources *____________________
-> Development
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
Modelling Scheme *______________
Tree traversal modes *________________
-> Stochastic modelling
Principles *_______
-> Development
Growth Rhythm *____________
Damped growth *____________
Viability *______
Rhythmic axis *___________
Branching *________
Stochastic automaton *_________________
-> Organogenesis equations
Principles *_______
Organ cohorts *___________
Organ numbering *_____________
Substructure factorization *____________________
Stochastic case *____________
-> Structure construction
Construction modes *_______________
Construction basis *______________
Axis of development *________________
Stochastic reconstruction *___________________
Implicit construction *________________
Explicit construction *________________
3D construction *____________
Supplementary resources *____________________
-> Production-Expansion
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
-> EcoPhysiology reminders
Relevant concepts *______________
Temperature *__________
Light interception *______________
Photosynthesis *___________
Biomass common pool *_________________
Density *______
-> Principals
Growth cycle *__________
Refining PbMs *___________
Organ cohorts *___________
GreenLab vs PbM & FSPM *___________________
-> GreenLab's equations
Summary *_______
Production equation *_______________
Plant demand *__________
Organ dimensions *______________
A dynamic system view *__________________
Equation terms *____________
Full Model *________
Model behaviour *______________
Supplementary resources *____________________
-> Applications
Presentation & Objectives *____________________
Map *____
-> Measurements
Agronomic traits *_____________
Mesurable/hidden param. *___________________
Fitting procedure *______________
-> Fitting structure
Principles *_______
-> Development
Simple development *_______________
Damped growth *____________
Rhythmic growth *_____________
Rhythmic growth samples *___________________
Mortality *_______
Branching *________
-> Crown analysis
Analysis principles *______________
Equations *________
Example / Exercise *_______________
-> Case study
Plant Architecture *______________
Development simulation *__________________
Introducing Biomass *_______________
Biomass partitioning *_______________
Equilibrium state *_____________
Supplementary resources *____________________

-> Tools (software)
Presentation & Objectives *_____________________
Map *____
Fitting, Stats *___________
Simulation *_________
Online tools *__________

Preliminary Course

Botany. Architectural Analysis

Architectural Unit


    The reiteration process plays a key role in mature tree crown construction.

      As first stated by Oldeman, (1974) the reiteration process may involve the expression of the total architectural unit, so called complete or total reiteration, or the expression of part of the developmental sequence duplicating only part of the species architectural unit, so called partial reiteration.
      Moreover, reiterated complexes may originate from dormant meristems. In this case such complexes are called proleptic or delayed reiterations.

      By contrast, reiteration may result from a shift in the functioning of the apical meristem of a growing shoot that will finally produce a low differentiated structure, i.e. a branch apex that after some time of functioning gives rise to a supernumerary trunk.
      In this case, the reiteration is described as sylleptic, or immediate reiteration.
      Either of these delayed or immediate reiterations may be qualified as total or partial.

      Reiteration was originally only considered as an opportunistic process, with two main origins.
      - Adaptive reiteration is a response to an increase in resource levels.
      - Traumatic reiteration is a response of a plant after it has been damaged and lost a major part of its structure.
      However, it is now demonstrated that, beside these cases of opportunistic reiteration, the same process of repetition may be involved in the inherent growth pattern of a species and occur automatically during plant development after a definite threshold of differentiation.

      This latter case is a common feature of tree development and crown construction and is referred to as automatic or sequential reiteration. It has also be shown that environmental conditions affect the reiteration process. In many cases, resource pressure limits the process. Immediate reiteration can be considered as a meanmean allowing trees to optimize space occupancy according to available energy.

      Stages of development involving reiteration. The case of Shorea stenoptera (Drawings C. Edelin, CIRAD)
           Left. The young tree: the architectural unit.
           Middle. Adult trees. Two steps of immediate automatic reiteration in crown establishment.
           Right. The mature tree. Delayed reiterations appearing at older stages.

      Traumatic reiteration is a delayed process, since it arises from dormant meristems awakened after the traumatism.
      It can also be total or partial.
        Traumatic reiteration
        Traumatic reiteration on Alpine Larch. (Photo courtesy M. Kauffman, BACKCOUNTRY PRESS)
             Red arrows: Complete traumatic reiterations.
             Yellow arrow: Partial traumatic reiteration.

      The occurrence of reiterated complexes seems to be a move backwards within the plant's developmental sequence.
      For instance, the reiterated complexes resulting from the transformation of a branch, or from the development of a dormant meristem, implies that the plant expresses again the juvenile growth pattern of the organism developed from seed.
      This is well illustrated in cases of regeneration in which, when a trunk is cut, sprouts resembling young trunks are formed from the stump, whereas reiterated complexes that develop after a branch has been damaged have an architecture similar to that of that branch.


Oldeman R.A.A. 1974. L'architecture de la forêt guyanaise. Mémoire no.73. Paris: O.R.S.T.O.M.

Edelin C. 1977. Images de l'architecture des conifères. Thèse de Doctorat (Sciences biologiques option Biologie végétale). Université de Montpellier II, 255 p.

Barthélémy, D., Caraglio, Y. 2007. Plant Architecture: A Dynamic, Multilevel and Comprehensive Approach to Plant Form, Structure and Ontogeny. Annals of Botany, 99 (3) : pp. 375-407 19 (access to paper and pdf)


Botany. Botanical concept used to describe local or global architectural structure duplication. First defined by Oldeman, 1979.


Architectural Unit
Botany. The architectural Unit of a given plant species is the specific expression of its architectural model. The architectural Unit of a plant can be seen as a hierarchical branched system in which the axes can be grouped into categories according to their morphological, anatomical or functional distinctive features (Barthélémy et Caraglio, 2007).
See also: Architectural Model.